The museum appeared in 1970, as one of the first archaeological and historical museum in the country. The most famous treasures were brought here, first of all the precious metal ones, in the only public place where security and visibility could be ensured to the same extent. Also, a lot of other pieces of great archaeological and historical value have popped up in the exhibitions of the museum, to illustrate the history of that time.
The museum holds three permanent exhibitions: the Historical Treasure, the Lapidarium and Trajan’s Column. In the inner courtyard of the old palace was built a modern building, with the destination Lapidarium, reinforced concrete and glass, with the star-shaped roof, where a natural-scale copy of the base of Trajan’s Column from Rome and copies after the scenes represented on this extraordinary monument of antiquity. The idea of a copy, belonged to several Romanian scholars and artisans, since the 19th century but it was only realized through 1939-1943, the merit belonging to the archaeologist Emil Panaitescu, at that time director of the Romanian School in Rome.